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List of Nuremberg interpreters? October 1, 2014

Posted by Jill (@bonnjill) in Uncategorized.
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I had an interesting comment today on a post from 2009 entitled Wishing translators and interpreters a Happy International Translation Day. The gentleman heard a BBC Radio 4 broadcast about International Translation Day, googled it, and must have stumbled on my blog. He states that his former father-in-law served as a translator/interpreter at the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials, but since he refused to talk about his experiences the family is not sure. He asked if a list existed of the Nuremberg interpreters and translators. A bit of googling led me to discover there were six interpreters, twelve translators, nine stenographers for each of the four languages, totaling 108 people. However, I wonder if a list exists. It is definitely an interesting question. If anyone knows of a resource please let me know. Thanks. And I hope you all had a good International Translation Day. I enjoyed a 90-minute massage this afternoon and processed a bushel of Roma tomatoes. I had the day off since the job I am working on this month needs to be re-DTPed. I just love it when umlauts aren’t recognized and “l”s are output as “i”s, don’t you?

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1. Dina - October 1, 2014

One might try writing to http://www.yadvashem.org/ for information.

Shalom and happy Translation Day from a former Hebrew-English translator.

2. Zoya Nayshtut - October 1, 2014

This is a very interesting question, Jill. So far I have managed to find only a list of interpreters from the Soviet team. Their names are mentioned in the book about Nuremberg by J. Gofman (in Russian).

На Нюрнбергском процессе синхронными переводчиками с немецкого языка на русский работали Е. А. Гофман, С. И. Дорофеев, Т. Ю. Соловьева, Е. Е. Стенина (Щемилева), Т. С. Ступникова.

Синхронный перевод с английского языка осуществляли И. М. Кулаковская, Э. М. Мамедов, Т. А. Рузская, О. А. Трояновский.

Синхронный перевод с французского вели Н. Л. Еселева, Н. В. Орлова, М. А. Соболева (Бердникова), К. Ф. Стариков, К. В. Цуринев.

http://coollib.net/b/196248/read

Jill (@bonnjill) - October 1, 2014

Would you mind transcribing the names for those people who don’t read Russian (I’m thinking specifically of the gentleman who asked the question in the post)? Thanks.

Zoya Nayshtut - October 1, 2014

Sure, please see below:

Interpreters from German into Russian: E. A. Gofman, S. I. Dorofeev, T. Yu. Solovieva, E. E. Stenina (Tschemileva), T. S. Stupnikova.

Interpreters from English into Russian: I. M. Kulakovskaya, E. M. Mamedov, T.A. Ruzskaya, O.Ya. Troyanovskiy.

Interpreters from French into Russian: N. L. Eseleva, N. V. Orlova, M. A. Soboleva (Berdnikova), K. F. Starikov, K. V. Tsurinev.

It is also mentioned in the book that a grand-nephew of the great Russian writer, Lev Tolstoy, was working as an interpreter for the French delegation. The Russian group of the American interpreters was headed by Tatiana Trubetskaya.

Jill (@bonnjill) - October 2, 2014

Excellent! Thank you.

3. Christine Schmit - October 1, 2014

Fascinating question! I once wrote a paper on the interpreters at the Nuremberg trials for a university course and here are some of the names I came across during my research: Patricia Vander Elst (née Jordan), Peter Less, Wolf Frank, Peter Uiberall, George Wassiltchikoff, Elisabeth Heyward, Leon Dostert, Sigfried Ramler, Edouard Roditi, Haakon Chevalier, Stefan Horn, Armand Jacoubovitch, Frederick Treidell, Marie-France Skuncke, Evgenia Rosoff, Youri Klebnikov.
I never found a complete list of names. AIIC is probably the best place to contact for more names.

Victoria Marrero - August 2, 2016

My grandmother Ludka Prymka, was also a translator at the trials. They also asked her to witness their hangings.

Fran Winter - October 12, 2017

In your list you mention a Wolf Frank. I am wondering if, instead, it could have been Grete Wolf. According to everyone I have met in my husband’s family, and the few relatives of his mother, my husband’s mother, Grete Wolf, was one of the simultaneous translators (German, French, English) at the trials. Probably during the main military tribunal as that is when my father-in-law (then courting Grete) recognized and pointed out Ohlendorf – and that’s how he was caught. I wrote more about this to Elke – who has contributed so much on this blog. If you have any additional information, it would be greatly appreciated. Thank you.

4. Dina - October 5, 2014

Shalom to all. It is really nice how the names are coming together here.
I received this reply today from Yad Vashem in Jerusalem:

“The Yad Vashem Archives do not have list of translators of the Nuremberg trials.

We would suggest to turn to the National Archives NARA
http://www.archives.gov/

Best Wishes for a peaceful New Year
Karin Dengler

Reference & Information Services
Yad Vashem”

5. helen - October 6, 2014

Hello – there is a family story that my great-uncle Harold Israel (1909 – 1984) was one of the translators, but we’ve no proof. If anyone comes across his name I would be most interested.

6. themiddletonman - January 21, 2015

Interesting topic.

I once met a lady who lived in Bermuda called Ali Bloch, she told me that she was a translator at the Nuremberg trials. She was an avid orchid collector and had a real zest for life, one of the nicest people I ever met. She had some link also to the Gestetner family who I believe were of Hungarian origin.

David

7. Teresa - March 25, 2015

Armand Jacoubovitch’s granddaughter (Miranda Richmond Mouillet) has written a book called ‘ A Fifty-year Silence’. It was a compelling story and history and since I wasn’t aware of Armand’s role at the Nuremberg trials it cast a new light on the horrors of WWII.

8. Rolf-Dieter Habich - April 17, 2015

From the 1950s into the 1980s my family and I (all German) were in
frequent contact with Mr Waldemar Heidtke from Milwaukee, Wis. This gentleman served as an interpretor at the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials. While there is no doubt about the correctness of this information, today, now that Mr Heidtke passed away long ago, we rue not having interviewed him more closely on his experience. We
do recall him telling us he dealt with A. Speer and his proving this by giving us a photo showing him together with Speer After Speer’s release from Spandau prison.
Question: Can anyone give us more information about Mr Heidtke’s
activities? Your kind response would be much appreciated.

The Black Rabbit of Inlé - January 24, 2016

Here’s a letter Waldemar H. Heidtke wrote to a newspaper in 1965 about having worked as a translator at the main Nuremberg trial:

The Black Rabbit of Inlé - January 24, 2016
9. Adrian - May 3, 2015

I would also be interested. My father told me that he was an interpreter at Nuremberg but little else. His name was John G. Lowe

10. Alan Cathcart - May 6, 2015

My high school German teacher, Reinholdt Kieslich, told us he was a Nuremberg interpreter. Another teacher at the same school (Punahou School in Honolulu) was Siegfried Ramler, whose role as an interpreter is documented on the Web.

11. tjfitz - August 15, 2015

We knew a lady in Bismarck, North Dakota, born about 1931-32, Dolores M. Koller, who said she was a Nuremberg interpreter or translator. Seems a bit young.

12. Kathy Fuller - September 26, 2015

My mother’s uncle was said to have been a translator at Neuremberg also. His name was Col. Hugh R. Schwecke. Is there a chance that more information on the trials will be released as we pass the number of years necessary for privacy and security?

13. Patricia Sherrill - January 10, 2016

My grandmother, Antoinette Aronin, was a translator/interpreter for the Nuremberg trials. She was born in Romania, educated in Switzerland, emigrated to the U.S. and married a Russian Jew. Since she was widowed, when her American-born sons were serving in the Army during WWII, she volunteered as an interpreter. I know she was fluent in several languages but I don’t know which languages she translated.

14. Jane Shaul - February 29, 2016

My uncle, Bernard Brener, was said to be a translator/interpreter for the Nuremberg trials as well. He was American-born, and, if I recall my mother’s stories, was present during Baldur von Schirach’s interrogation. A list of the Nuremberg interpreters would prove helpful.

15. Marguerite Schultz - March 5, 2016

Growing up I lived across the street from a Nuremberg iterpreter named Gregory Lee Hill and even saw him on a war documentary on tv years ago.

I can’t find any information about him or his family now, including anything about his work at Nuremberg.

16. Kay Portner - April 1, 2016

I am trying to find out information about our Great Uncle William Dorn, who was an interpreter/interrogator at the Nuremburg trials. He was American born, German to English interpreter who had such difficulties with what he discovered from the trials that he broke ties with the rest of the family. The family were all very involved with the Lutheran faith and he became an agnostic. Any information would be appreciated

17. Cherie - April 5, 2016

My maternal grandfather, god rest his soul, was a German interpreter at the Nuremberg war crime trials. An ad was posted in the Milwaukee Journal accepting applications for interpreters. My grandfather was chosen out of around 100 people. He spoke fluent German, English, Swiss, and Sweetsadeuch (sp). Though my family missed him terribly, we we’re all very proud of him. I know I’ve told many people over the last 48 years the story of my grandpa and how proud I am.

18. Sandra Miller-Louden - May 18, 2016

I am told that my first cousin, once removed, Joseph Radojcsics, was a translator at the Nuremberg Trials. That first generation (which included my Dad) spoke German before they spoke English. It was apparently not the “High German” of the upper class, but rather “Low German.” I am told these were actually two quite different languages, I suppose akin to English & Cockney. In Joey’s obituary, it stated he was a translator & Dad always said so as well. I don’t know if this is correct…are there any definitive published lists? I tried to find one on this site, but couldn’t. Any help would be appreciated.

19. Lady - May 26, 2016

My husband’s father was an interpreter at the Nuremberg Trials. His name was Joseph E. Goeser. Lived in Miami FL after coming back from Germany until his death in 2008.

20. Elke Limberger-Katsumi - September 17, 2016

Hello, I just came across this. We, the German region of AIIC, have put together an exhibition on the Nuremberg interpreters in 2013, done more research on it and expanded the exhibition which has been shown in various places already. If you want to know more, go to our website at profession-of-interpreting.org. There is a lot that we still do not know, but we are getting better. Maybe I should say that we concentrated on the simultaneous interpreters, not those that interpreted during the questioning outside the courtroom. I hope that this can answer a few questions.

21. Bernie Maengen - September 23, 2016

My father Henry Maengen told me he was a translator at the trials. My father was in the U.S, Army at the time, Jewish and stationed in Germany. So his skills were used at the trials. He has since passed away however. I wish I had asked him more about his experience.

22. andresimha2016 - September 26, 2016

My father, Eric Simha, was an interpreter at the trials working for the US Army. He passed away in 1986.

23. Jesús Baigorri Jalón - September 29, 2016

Hello, I just came across this interesting string of comments. Reflections on the history of interpreting and interpreters at the main Nuremberg trial (there were 12 subsequent proceedings, which may explain why some of the people mentioned by relatives in this series of comments did work at the Nuremberg trials) can be found, among other sources, at:
*Francesca Gaiba (1998) The Origins of Simultaneous Interpretation. The Nuremberg Trial. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press. (The most complet work on the subject)

*This article by Wadi Keiser, available at: https://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2004/v49/n3/009380ar.pdf

*Jesús Baigorri-Jalón (2016 /2004 /2000) From Paris to Nuremberg. The birth of conference interpreting. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
https://benjamins.com/#catalog/books/btl.111/main

I am still interested in the subject and would like to know if any of the participants in the conversation, such as Andre Simha, whose father’s name was mentioned to me by many UN colleagues, keep any records or memorabilia.

24. Jesús Baigorri-Jalón - September 29, 2016

I have just come across this string of comments. Some of the testimonies I’ve read on the participation at the Nuremberg trials by observers’ relatives may be explained by the fact that there were 12 subsequent Nuremberg trials (only English-German) after the main military tribunal. In my view the best book on interpreting and interpreters at the main Nuremberg Trial is:
*Gaiba, Francesca (1998) The Origins of Simultaneous Interpretation. The Nuremberg Trial. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press.
Other references:
*this article by Wadi Keiser:
https://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2004/v49/n3/009380ar.pdf
*the book Baigorri-Jalón, Jesús (2016, English edition) (2004, French edition) (2000, Spanish edition) From Paris to Nuremberg. The birth of conference interpreting. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
I am interested in this subject and in the history of interpreting in general. If any of the readers has kept records (documents, photos, etc.) from their relatives, please let me know (baigorri@usal.es). Eric Simha was often mentioned by colleagues at the UN when I was working on the book Interpreters at the United Nations (2004) Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca.

25. Avril Collier - October 13, 2016

I used to work at WHO Hq in Geneva in the office that hired interpreters for conferences. I remember Eric Simha who was an interpreter at the Nurembourg trials. I think Hélène Pfaendler was another, and possibly Gedda Prejsman. Both ladies were also interpreters at WHO.

Elke Limberger-Katsumi - May 30, 2017

Dear Ms Collier,
I just saw your comment in this conversation. Further down I have explained about AIIC’s project ‘One Trial – Four Languages’ (profession-of-interpreting.org). We have tracked many of them down, including Mr Simha. We know about one Helen, but no futher details, maybe she married and was then called PFaendler. Does WHO keep records on their interpreters, so one could find out? Another one was Norbert Berger, but we know nothing about him, other than that he worked in Geneva. There is one interpreter called Marc Priceman who later worked for the UN in New York, that is the only Preijsman we have come across. Do you think the WHO archives would reveal some more information?
Thank you.
Elke

26. John Berkeley - November 11, 2016

My wife’s family has long believed that my late father-in-law Francis Ian Hamilton Wood, an aeronautical engineer who was fluent in German, had been an interpreter or translator at the Nuremberg Trials. I was once told that the Wiener Library in London might have a complete list but have yet to follow this up.

Bernie Maengen - November 11, 2016

I e-mailed the library to see if they in fact have a list of names. I will post my response once I hear back.

Bernie Maengen - November 14, 2016

I received a reply from the Wiener Library and they do not have lists of interpreters at their library. The suggest contacting the Holocaust Museum in Washington, D.C.

27. Larry - December 7, 2016

My uncle, Joseph Millner from Detroit was a interpreter. After the trials were over he worked for Ford Motor Co.

28. Linda Carlson - December 12, 2016

I am also trying to find information on my Uncle Julius Fewer. I was told he was a translator at the Nuremberg Trials, but that is all I know.

29. Steve Ganzfried - January 27, 2017

My mother Ethel Terhaar was the only WAC at Nuremberg Trials, she went there as a translator. She wrote all about it, I have never read it but one of my sisters has it and I would like to read it. I’m not sure of the name of the book on the trials my mother once showed me but it had a picture of her with other people standing around a piano singing Christmas songs.

30. Peter - February 7, 2017

Here is another link to the list of translators.
http://nuremberg.law.harvard.edu/documents

31. D. J. Stom - April 28, 2017

Marie-Anne Garnier (1921-2007), my mother, officiated as an interpreter at the Nuernberg trials. She spoke both French and German perfectly (hailing from Lorraine) and later added English and Dutch to the list of languages she commanded with extraordinary ease and fluency. She was an early member of AIIC and worked for many years as a distinguished translator and interpreter, including for Euratom and the Common Market organizations in Brussels for 2 decades.

Jesús Baigorri-Jalón - May 1, 2017

It would be great to confirm that Marie-Anne Garnier was on the simultaneous interpreting team at the main Trial (1945-46). Would you, D. J. Stom, have any photographs or records from your mother?

Didier J. Stom - May 1, 2017

I have seen newsreel footage of her sitting in one of the interpreters’ booths within the court room at Nuernberg’s Palace of Justice.
She is mentioned in 2 publications / directories that I know of, though not explicitly as an interpreter; she is listed under ‘Marie-Anne Garnier’ as one of 33 research and documentary analysts assisting the prosecution counsel in the “Ministries Case” (USA vs. Ernst von Weizsaecker, et al.) between October 1946 and April 1949, and she appears as ‘Marie A. Garnier’ in the list of civilian personnel actively engaged in the trials as of January 1948 by the Office of Chief of Counsel for War Crimes [OCCWC] and the Office of the Secretary General [for Military Tribunals].
Note that she married D.J.C. Stom in 1951, and was a very active member of the AIIC for over a half century since its inception as ‘Marie-Anne Stom-Garnier’.
If you come across additional information about my mother’s contributions during the trials, kindly advise!

Jesús Baigorri-Jalón - May 2, 2017

Thank you, Mr. Stom, for the information. Do you have the reference to the footage you mention? That would probably allow to clarify the context in which your mother worked in interpreters’ booths: the main Trial or the subsequent proceedings.

32. D. J. Stom - May 2, 2017

Thank you for your interest. I last saw that news clip many years ago and have been trying to find it again. Any assistance anyone can supply in this matter, e.g. accounts and/or pictures re: the French simultaneous interpretation team during any of the phases of the IMT, would be greatly appreciated!

33. Elke Limberger-Katsumi - May 8, 2017

Dear Mr Storm, As my colleague Jesús has already pointed out, we would need to have a photo to be able to identify her. The personnel list does not give the people’s occupation as you already stated. There are films taken on several trial days on You Tube that you can watch. They frequently show the interpreting booths, maybe you will recognize your mother and greatly help us with this. Jesús and myself are both members of aiic and have been on a project on the Nuremberg interpreters for some time. You can read all about it on profession-of-interpreting.org. We are desparately looking to identify more of the simultaneous interpreters and it would be great, if you just helped us find one!

D. J. Stom - May 10, 2017

Thank you Ms. Limberger. My brother and I are viewing all footage of the trials we can find in a attempt to isolate a clear shot of our mother in the French booth. We’re not certain yet about whether she was part of the French team during the main IMT and/or just one or several of the subsequent NMTs. Do you or anyone you know have a list of the set of six French interpreters on duty during the main trial? As I mentioned in an earlier posting, she is listed as a contributor to the prosecution for case no. 11 of NMT IV in 1948. I’ll be back in touch when I uncover more veritable info and would greatly appreciate any assistance you may be able to lend to this quest!
Also, are there any archives of AIIC members? All I have been able to find in a couple of mention of my mother’s name in an article published by Henri Methorst who she met in Holland in 1952 or so and with whom she then worked on many occasions over several decades as an interpreter for numerous recurring conferences. He, she and another colleague by the name of Margie Leenheer-Braid were long-time friends as well as colleagues. Here again, any insight you can bring to this topic would be much appreciated!

Jesús Baigorri-Jalón - May 10, 2017

Mr. Storm, Names like Génia Rosoff, Jean Meyer, Marie-France Skuncke are well known as interpreters from the French delegation.
The following book mentions very collaterally the activity of the author as an interpreter at Nuremberg, but he was probably assigned to one or more of the subsequent proceedings:
Handrich, Emmanuel: La Résistance… Pourquoi ? Souvenirs des deux guerres et de déportation à Buchenwald 1914-1918 et 1939-1945, Paris 2006.
To be continued…

34. D. J. Stom - May 10, 2017

Yes, thank you; I have come across those names. Hopefully we will manage to ascertain whether or not Marie-Anne Garnier (later ‘Stom-Garnier’) was a colleague of theirs during the IMT.
Do you know of any archived lists of AIIC members from the early/mid-50s?

Jesús Baigorri-Jalón - May 11, 2017

AIIC’s central office would be the right place to ask about old directories. I’m sure they will be able to track your mother’s name in old members’ lists:
Contacting AIIC Headquarters

Our international secretariat will be happy to answer your questions about AIIC and AIIC membership in French or English:

International Association of Conference Interpreters
46, avenue Blanc
CH-1202 Geneva
Switzerland
P: +41 22 908 15 40
F: +41 22 732 41 51
E: info@aiic.net
Opening hours: 8:00-17:00 Geneva time

35. Elke Limberger-Katsumi - May 30, 2017

Reply to Mr Stom and everyone who is wondering whether a person they knew was indeed a (simultaneous) interpreter at the IMT,
As pointed out some time ago, AIIC has this project on ‘One Trial-Four Languages’ trying to trace these interpreters. The project website is profession-of-interpreting.org. You can also contact us through there.

Now particularly about Ms Garnier who quite certainly was there: do you have a later photograph of her? If you sent me one (or several) I can go through the photos we have of the court room and other situations and try to recognize her. There are some female faces in the French booth for whom we still do not have any names.

Thanks for helping us with our research,
Elke

36. Didier J. Stom - May 30, 2017

Thank you for the link to that interesting AIIC project, Ms. Limberger. I do have a clear picture of my mother (Marie-Anne Garnier,1921-2007) from circa 1945. Shall I use one of your AIIC-associated email addresses to transmit that to you?

Elke Limberger-Katsumi - May 30, 2017

Wonderful. Youz can use elke@katsumi.eu or the contact email on the website of profession-of-interpreting.org. Getting really excited….

37. Jesús Baigorri-Jalón - May 31, 2017

I’m not sure if I’m answering within the correct framework, and I am doing it off the cuff, but I can confirm that Gedda (or Hedda) Prejsman is Mark Priceman’s sister. She spelled her name differently. She was an interpreter all (or most) of her professional life, in Europe, but also in the early days of the profession in the US (I saw once a photo where she appeared with colleagues at a conference in the East coast, but I haven’t found the photo again) and in Israel (even before its independence), where she spent a good part of her life, as far as I can remember.
Pfaendler rings a bell as someone who taught interpreting, probably at the Geneva school, but I should have to check sources.
Jesús

38. David Hunneybell - August 25, 2017

My late father Charles Thomas Olivier Hunneybell was a british soldier captured at Lille in France fighting rear guard for the Dunkirk evacuation, his army number was 5499989 in the Kings Own Royal regiment, he was marched to Upper Silesia in Poland and was in Stalag 8B / 344, he was working as slave labour in a saw mill/ wood yard, when he escaped with another and made contact with the Czechoslovak resistance, he was with them until a Gestapo officer recognised him and he was recaptured and tortured, among other things thay pulled his teeth out with a pair of pliers. He was again imprisoned, and i believe possibly released by the soviets.
Point of the story is, he always hated Germans and never spoke about the war but was said to be one of the translators at the Nurumburg trials, i never realy believed that until shortly before his death we were talking with German friends, and he asked to speak to them, he then spoke at length to my friend in German, and after the lengthy conversation i asked my friend if everything was all ok (knowing my fathers hatred for Germans), but he said it was incredible, my father spoke fluent German and he could have been speaking to his own father, so i have always wondered if he was also one of the many translators at the trials?

39. Frank Dammers - October 10, 2017

My uncle E. Weijenberg told me he was a translator during the Nuremberg trails and has done much more for the Allies between 1940 and 1955 that time, see the video. Who knows more about my uncle? https://youtu.be/ElqxqM9KEsU


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